Maca goed bij de overgang

Maca (Lepidium meyenii, peruvianum, wortel) is een hoog in het Andesgebergte groeiend Peruviaans knolgewas. Mede vanwege de uitwerking op energie, uithoudingsvermogen, libido en vitaliteit is maca ook bekend onder de naam ‘Peruviaanse ginseng’, of ‘ginseng van de Andes’. De maca is de enige eetbare plant die onder extreme weersomstandigheden en op een hoogte tussen de 3000 en 4000 meter kan overleven. De wortels van de plant zijn zeer voedzaam en worden al duizenden jaren door de plaatselijke bevolking bij bijna elke maaltijd gebruikt.

Maca wordt binnen de traditionele geneeskunde bij zowel mannen als vrouwen gebruikt voor de behandeling van geslachts- en hormoongerelateerde aandoeningen. Maca kan mogelijk worden ingezet bij peri- en postmenopauzale klachten, premenstrueel syndroom (PMS), libido- en potentiestoornissen, vruchtbaarheidsproblemen, verstoorde hormonale huishouding, botontkalking (osteoporose) en prostaatvergroting.

Volgens een studie werkt Maca erg goed bij overgansklachten’. Een combinatie van zwarte maca [16%], gele maca [48%], paarsrode maca [9%] en andere macavariëteiten [27%]) is het enige macasupplement waarvan in preklinisch en klinisch onderzoek is aangetoond dat het helpt tegen overgangsklachten en zorgt voor een betere hormonale balans.. (Dus de ene maca is niet de andere)!

Maca heeft een significante invloed op de hormoonspiegels (met name FSH, oestradiol en cortisol). Gebruik van dit macasupplement (in de standaarddosis van 2 gram per dag) zorgt meestal binnen 2 maanden (soms al na 2 dagen en vaak binnen 3 weken) tot significante afname van overgangsklachten. Dat maca in de klinische studies helpt bij de meerderheid (rond 80%) van de vrouwen met overgangsklachten is te verklaren door regulatie van hypothalamus en hypofyse, de hersengebieden die het endocriene stelsel en stress-systeem aansturen. Na de overgang bevordert maca een goede fysieke en mentale conditie (botten, hart en bloedvaten, huid, zenuwstelsel). Het gebruik van maca is zeer veilig en in humane studies met maca zijn geen negatieve bijwerkingen waargenomen.  (Maca kan beter niet worden gebruikt bij inname van medicijnen die de aanmaak van hormonen onderdrukken, zoals tamoxifen).

Macastudies bij vrouwen in de overgang

In een klinische studie met maca-GO kregen 102 vrouwen (49-58 jaar) in de overgang, die ten minste 6 maanden niet meer menstrueerden, eerst 2 maanden maca (1 gram voor het ontbijt en 1 gram voor het avondeten) en gedurende 1 maand placebo of omgekeerd.(93) Het gebruik van maca-GO leidde tot significante afname van overgangsklachten, gemeten met KMI (van 22 naar 10 punten) en GCS (van 18 naar 11 punten). Maca zorgde voor significante verlaging van de frequentie en ernst van overgangsklachten, met name opvliegers en nachtzweten, gevolgd door nervositeit, stemmingswisselingen, slecht slapen, vermoeidheid, hoofdpijn, depressie en laag libido.(93) Tijdens de overgang neemt de hormoonproductie in de eierstokken af en stijgt (ter compensatie) de synthese van FSH (follikelstimulerend hormoon) en LH (luteïniserend hormoon) in de hypofyse, zodat de eierstokken sterker worden gestimuleerd, totdat er geen follikels meer uitrijpen en de hormoonproductie (vrijwel) tot stilstand komt. Maca bevat geen fyto-oestrogenen maar bevordert wel een goede hormonale balans. In deze studie leidde macasuppletie met name tot stijging van de oestrogeenspiegel en daling van de FSH-spiegel, suggestief voor een betere eierstokfunctie.(93)

Een tweede pilotstudie met maca-GO duurde 4 maanden, waarin de deelneemsters (49-58 jaar) in 4 groepen waren verdeeld en in wisselende volgorde 2 maanden een placebo innamen en 2 maanden maca-GO (2 gram/dag).(93) Ook deze studie liet significante afname zien van overgangsklachten, gemeten met KMI en GCS, stijging van de oestrogeenspiegel en daling van de FSH-spiegel. Een wat jongere groep perimenopauzale vrouwen (41-50 jaar) nam deel aan een pilotstudie waarin ze 2 maanden maca-GO innamen (2 gram/dag) en 2 maanden placebo, of omgekeerd.(97) 2 maanden gebruik van maca-GO leidde bij ongeveer 80% van de vrouwen tot significante verlichting van overgangsklachten (significante daling totale score KMI) en lichte daling van de bloeddruk. De klachten die het sterkst verbeterden waren opvliegers, nachtzweten, slaapproblemen, nervositeit, depressie en hartkloppingen. De resultaten van bloedonderzoek suggereren dat maca-GO de spiegels van diverse hormonen (FSH, oestrogeen, progesteron, adrenocorticotroop hormoon [ACTH]) balanceert.(97) In een placebogecontroleerde pilotstudie van 4 maanden met 22 vrouwen in de overgang (49-58 jaar) leidde macasuppletie (tweemaal daags 1 gram) onder meer tot verhoging van de oestrogeenspiegel en verlaging van de cortisol- en FSH-spiegels en afname van het lichaamsgewicht. Ook verbeterden de scores van KMI en GCS significant, met de sterkste daling van opvliegers, (nacht)zweten, slaapproblemen en nervositeit.(108) Suppletie met maca-GO gedurende 4 maanden leidde bij 12 vrouwen tot verhoging van de botmineraaldichtheid. In een andere klinische studie leidde suppletie met maca-GO (tweemaal daags 1 gram) na 8 maanden onder meer tot significante stijging van de oestrogeen- en progesteronspiegels en significante verlichting van overgangsklachten, gemeten met GCS.(89) De standaarddosis maca (tweemaal daags 1 gram) kan het beste geleidelijk worden opgebouwd. Bij vrouwen die genoeg hebben aan 1 gram per dag (tweemaal daags 0,5 gram) kan een hogere dosis een te stimulerend effect hebben.(97) Bij andere vrouwen kan juist een iets hogere dosis nodig zijn voor het gewenste effect.

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Gratis proefverpakking vrouwenformule

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